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Add a brand new dimension to your work with just a few primary expertise and a cheap machine.

Woodworkers are becoming a member of the welding renaissance that’s occurring amongst makers. Understanding the fundamentals of welding is vital while you start welding. Here’s the way to incorporate stunning welded frames into your furnishings utilizing easy designs and only a few instruments. In truth, you possibly can put collectively a whole welding setup for much less than $1,000.

The Fundamentals

Stick, MIG and TIG are the three distinct programs of welding, and every approaches the three most important elements (arc, filler and flux) of welding in another way.

The arc (element 1) is created when {an electrical} circuit is accomplished. This high-amperage circuit melts the inventory you’re welding and provides extra materials via the filler. Stick welding generates the arc via the filler rod, MIG welding via the wire feed and TIG via the torch. Many seasoned welders say that it’s finest to study on a stick machine so that you just develop a really feel for controlling the arc manually then transfer to MIG and TIG. MIG and TIG processes sometimes produce the very best high quality, aesthetically pleasing welds in tough supplies equivalent to chrome steel or aluminum.

With stick welding, filler materials (element 2) is delivered via a strong rod that’s lined in flux. On a MIG machine, wire is fed into the weld by urgent the gun set off. TIG welding requires handbook feeding of a welding rod into the weld that’s created by a separate TIG torch. TIG is taken into account essentially the most tough welding system due to the coordination required with each palms.

Arc welding requires a flux (component 3) of some type to protect the arc from impurities. With stick welding, the flux coats the filler rod and nothing is required however electrical energy and the rods. The flux on the rod reacts with the arc and creates a fuel that shields the puddle. MIG welding makes use of a fuel (100 p.c carbon dioxide or a mixture of carbon dioxide and argon relying on the specified traits) to create a flux
barrier; TIG welding additionally makes use of fuel.

No. Item Length Material Cut List


4 Leg Side 14 1/2 x 2     1 x 1/8 metal tube

2 Leg Bottom 12 3/4  x 2     1 x 1/8 metal tube

2 Top Plate 18 x 2   1/4 metal plate

Materials Needed A big array of generally stocked steel tubing is offered at your native steel provide store. For this construct, a store in Cincinnati took my order over the cellphone and had it lower and prepared the identical day. For furnishings, look for hot- rolled tube that’s at the least 16ga (.0598″) thick. I like to stay with 1/8″ wall tube as a result of it’s forgiving whereas welding; you gained’t blow via it whereas laying a bead and it offers a pleasant heft to your furnishings.

Leg Bottom

Top Plate

Flux-Cored Arc Welding (FCAW)

1. My welding equipment features a primary welder, chop noticed, grinder, clamps, MIG pliers and security gear.

There’s a center floor between stick and MIG welding referred to as flux-cored arc welding. The system makes use of a MIG machine to auto feed flux-cored wire into the arc. Flux is generated by response, identical to stick welding, however is as simple as MIG welding. For my store, it’s an important center floor as a result of I don’t should even suppose about fuel. I simply go away a spool of .030″ flux-cored wire in my machine and I’m able to go. It’s a bonus that flux-cored welding is extra tolerant of impurities on the floor of the steel than other forms of welding, saving preparation time.

2. The controls on my machine are easy. I stored my feed round 40 and my voltage at 3 for many of the construct.

For this undertaking, I’ve determined to make use of the flux-cored system although the welds aren’t as good trying as other forms of welding. I’m going to grind my welds flat anyway so there wouldn’t be a visual distinction ultimately. If you determine to depart welds untouched in your steel base, I counsel springing for the fuel and go MIG or TIG to get enticing welds.

3. 1/8″ wall tube is difficult to mess up whereas welding and offers good heft for the bottom.

My machine is a Hobart Handler 140 which implies it’s able to delivering 140 amps. This explicit machine is wired for 115 volts. When you’re out there for a welder, the primary resolution to make is what’s the toughest materials you’ll weld. For furnishings making, I’ve a tough time imagining a day once I have to weld one thing thicker than 1/4” and my 140 handles as much as that thickness with ease. I’ve additionally determined to make use of flux-core wire in order that I don’t have to run fuel whereas welding. My wire is 0.030″, a measurement that’s applicable for a reasonably wide selection of fabric sizes.

Making the Cuts

4. Cold-cut chop saws make correct cuts that want little cleanup past common prep for welding.

There are just a few strategies to chop inventory for welding. An abrasive wheel is a typical technique. It can be utilized in an angle grinder or in a chop noticed. The draw back to abrasive wheels is the quantity of substrate and particles solid into the air (they make a large number). Another technique is a steel slicing band noticed. These are just like a woodworking band saws, however they run slower and have a coolant pump to maintain warmth down and the blade lubricated.

5. The cold-cut noticed leaves a clear and correct lower.

Another possibility is a cold-cut chop noticed. Cold-cut saws use a carbide blade with a tooth design that’s made particularly for steel. It leaves nearly no burr that must be floor off. The blade is stiffer than an abrasive chop noticed so that you gained’t see as a lot deflection.

Cutting Angles

6. The miters straight off the noticed; tight.

I constructed this base in only a few hours (you can most likely construct it in much less should you don’t have to get your welding tools out and arrange). There are simply eight cuts on this. Begin with an 8′ part of 1″ x 2″ tube with a 1/8” wall. Set your chop noticed to 10° and make your first lower. This would be the high of your leg. Measure 14 1/2” down and set your chop noticed to 40°. Repeat this course of once more and your legs are prepared. Cut the leg backside with 40° cuts on each side.

Prep the Metal

7. Ground and able to go. There’s loads of room for the weld to fill and be part of.

One of an important elements of welding is steel prep. The aim is to take away all the mill scale, oil and different overseas supplies from the inventory and get down to reveal metal.
To obtain a robust weld that pen
etrates the inventory appropriately, you have to create a valley to extend the floor space on the joint and a spot for the filler to occupy.

Tack the Parts

8. Use larger amperage and decrease wire feed pace for tack welds. Low laying tacks with good robust bonds are ultimate.

Finally, you’re prepared to drag the trigger in your welder! The first weld you’ll make is a tack weld. These tiny welds maintain your elements in place earlier than you lay an extended bead. The concept is you could tack and modify the hole between elements, tune an angle excellent or break it aside if issues aren’t lining up. On your machine, there’ll be a chart that dictates the settings you must use. When you tack weld, improve the voltage and reduce the wire feed pace from the suggested settings. You desire a flat weld that penetrates each items shortly.

9. Flux-core wire will go away flux and spatter on the floor. It’s simply cleaned off together with your chip hammer and wire brush.

There’s additionally some technique to tack welding your work. The second you introduce warmth to your elements, they’ll begin to transfer. You’ll have to alternate the locations the place you tack your work so that you just preserve sq. joints and maintain all the things flat. When welding on sq. or rectangular tube, it’s finest to put your tacks simply earlier than the corners. This method you can begin and finish your weld with out a tack weld interrupting your bead. In extra business settings there are totally different necessities for the position of tacks. Keep in thoughts that we’re constructing furnishings right here: a few of the stricter guidelines for welding merely don’t apply.

Lay a Bead

10. Here’s the cleaned weld. There’s loads of room for aesthetic enchancment right here, however these welds are greater than robust sufficient for furnishings joints. Plus, the welds are going to be floor down. Look for good penetration and that the hole and chamfer between the items is totally crammed.

Now you’re prepared to put a bead. After mastering your beads on scrap inventory of the identical thickness (in order that you will get your machine dialed in completely), there’s nothing left to do however go for it. Don’t strive any variety of latest sample on the precise work piece; stick to what you practiced.


Manipulating the way in which you weave the arc throughout the weld space will have an effect on the penetration, measurement and look of the weld. I’ve discovered for easy duties, a zig-zag weave produces a weld that fills the hole and offers strong penetration. There are dozens of variations; learn up and check out all of them!

Either you lay a lovely bead that you wish to share with the world and incorporate the feel into your furniture design, otherwise you grind welds flat to make the joint seamless.

11. When it comes time to weld the highest flat bar to the legs, you have to to show the amperage and feed as much as get good penetration on the thicker inventory.

I used rectangular inventory for my base, requiring a protracted weld dealing with in and out a extremely apparent place. I knew from the get-go I used to be going to grind these flat and paint the bottom, so I wasn’t upset when my welds didn’t come out completely.

12. Try and maintain your grinding wheel flat whereas taking down the majority of the fabric. The much less you grind the tube subsequent to the weld, the flatter a floor you’ll find yourself with.

A tough grinding wheel will make fast work of the surplus materials. But consider, metal tube has a radius alongside its edge and also you want to include that function into your sculpting, in any other case you’ll find yourself with an irregular floor.

Finishing Touches

13. This joint is nearly performed. I’ll hit it yet one more time with a finer grinding wheel to even out the scratches and the final of the tiny sides from the aggressive wheel.

I drilled 5 outsized holes within the flat bar to accommodate the transferment once I connect my slab high. There are many ending choices for your base. Most business outlets will ship their bases to be powder coated, however portray is a extra inexpensive resolution for a residence furnishings maker.

14. Time to color! I’m considering this espresso desk will assist loads of abuse from my three-year-old son.

Wipe down all the base with acetone, spray with a primer or a paint/primer combo after which an enamel of your alternative. You might additionally simply use a transparent coat and even easy wax should you’d wish to maintain the economic look. You’ll wish to put some type of end on the uncooked metal or it’ll rust.


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